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40200

2015-04-06:     

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Diesel Engine Performance and Effects

Engine soot is a common byproduct in diesel engines. Soot is formed as the result of incomplete fuel combustion. Diesel fuels are composed of hydrocarbons, containing both carbon and hydrogen, and when undergoing complete combustion, the only byproducts are CO2 and water. Fact is, no diesel engine is completely efficient and complete combustion does not occur. Complete combustion would require a very lean ratio of fuel to air, whereas real engine conditions exhibit richer fuel mixtures. The less air that is present in the ratio, the more favorable the conditions for soot accumulation.

Soot formation is more pronounced in newer, but any diesel engine. While fuel is injected during the compression stroke and ignited spontaneously from the pressure in diesel engines. Diesel engines produce fuel-dense pockets in the combustion chamber that produce soot when ignited. Newer exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) diesel engines, designed to reduce NOx emissions by routing part of the engine exhaust stream through an intercooler and back to the intake manifold, further compound soot problems in diesel engine oils.

Excessive soot concentrations in oil can be caused by a number of factors. Worn out rings or injectors, excessive idling, poor fuel spray patterns and incorrect air-fuel ratios are major causes of soot formation. A faulty fuel nozzle may spray more fuel than desired, increasing the fuel-to-air ratio and causing incomplete combustion and soot accumulation, or the air filter may become clogged, decreasing air supply and increasing the fuel-air ratio.

Soot particles are spherical in shape and 98 percent carbon by weight. They are a very small size of around 0.03 microns, but they often agglomerate to form larger particles. Although the majority of soot produced during combustion exits through the exhaust, some passes through the rings of the combustion chamber and enters the engine oil. As long as these soot particles remain suspended in the oil and are not allowed to agglomerate, they pose little risk to engine parts. It is up to the motor oil dispersants to keep soot particles dispersed. However, in high soot conditions, dispersants can become quickly depleted.

High soot load conditions lead to loss of oil dispersancy as oil dispersant additives are consumed. As dispersancy is lost, soot particles agglomerate and form larger particles that build up on engine surfaces. This soot and sludge eventually impedes oil flow, and it can also form in oil filters, blocking oil flow and allowing dirty oil to circulate through the engine. In addition, high soot levels within a motor oil increase its viscosity, further impeding oil flow and increasing engine wear. Anti-wear additive performance is also affected in high soot conditions as additives are gradually removed from the oil by adsorption to soot particles, leading to increased wear and premature engine failure.

Another negative effect of high soot conditions is the formation of carbon particles on the piston ring grooves, causing degradation of the oil seal between the ring and cylinder liner and abrading the ring and liner. As the gap between the ring and liner increases, combustion byproducts such as gases and unburned fuels blow into the crankcase, a problem known as blow-by, eventually causing expanding gases to lose ability to push the piston down and generate the power necessary to propel the vehicle. Horsepower is lost and fuel efficiency decreases. Ring sticking and poor heat transfer from the piston to the cylinder wall can also result. Carbon, varnish, soot, wear metals, acids and HEAT are all normal operating factors to consider when planning an effective diesel maintenance program.

Current industry standards outline acceptable levels of oil contaminants through a standardized oil sample test programs. These tests are available through engine manufacturers and testing laboratories. These standards have been set by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), the Automotive Petroleum Institute (API) and the engine manufacturers worldwide.

At Diesel TEK we believe the acceptable levels of any of these contaminates are as close to ZERO as they can be maintained. We treat the fuel addressing fuel quality, cetane, detergency and overall combustion efficiency. Our engine cleaning process addresses complete contaminate removal.

For more information on our program please visit www.dieseltek.com



40250

2014-07-20:     

Get Ready for More Soot In Engine Oil

Drew Troyer,

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to adopt and enforce more rigorous nitro-oxidation (NOx) and hydrocarbon emission policies for heavy-duty diesel engines used in trucks and buses. New environmental policies fueling ever-increasing engine soot loads spell good news for the environment, but bad news for lubricants. The soot has to go somewhere. Since its expulsion into the air is linked with respiratory diseases, the lubricant must serve as the "trash-can" of the system collecting the soot generated during combustion. Given the clear and undisputed priority to protect air quality and human health, we in the lubrication management business must gear up to ensure that the impact of this new legislation on engine performance is minimized. Major engine manufacturers have identified soot and "black sludge" deposition as a major cause for engine failure. We in oil analysis must be sure we are supplying appropriate information with which to make good decisions and ensure that this important impairment to engine reliability is held in check.

For 2004 and later model engines, the EPA has imposed tough new standards intended to decrease NOx emissions by 50% compared to 1998 model engines. The EPA expects the new standards to reduce ozone precursors by 1.1 million tons per year, abate acid rain and decrease particulate matter by about 43,000 tons per year. In sum, the legislation substantially reduces contaminants that are believed to cause or exacerbate the effects of a wide range of pulmonary and respiratory health problems.

Soot, comprised 98% of carbon by weight, is formed during the combustion process and enters the crankcase with combustion gas blow-by. Soot particles have a near spherical shape and originate in the .01 to .05 micron size range, but tend to agglomerate to form larger particles. Research into soot particles suggests that the size distribution during normal operation varies, but averages about .078 micron with a skew to the right due to the dominance of small particles (see Figure 1 below). Normally, soot generated during combustion exits via the engine's exhaust system.

Figure 1

Recent regulations limiting the emission of NOx and soot has led to the employment of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Certain diesel engine manufacturers have recently negotiated an agreement with the EPA that has resulted in a settlement to tighten emissions by October of 2002, largely through the introduction of new emission control technology like EGR. EGR essentially sends the emissions back to the combustion chamber creating a multi-pass opportunity for soot to ingress to the lubricant. An EGR valve regulates how much exhaust gas is recirculated. At idle, about 70% of the exhaust gas is recirculated, while only about 10-20% is recirculated at full load. While EGR does effectively reduce NOx and soot emissions to the atmosphere, soot loads in the lubricant can be expected to increase dramatically, causing increased temperature and viscosity, dispersancy failure, fouling, deposits and wear.

To deal with the effect of EPA regulations on engine lubricants, the cycle-time between engine lubricant upgrades is shortening. API CH-4, the most recent upgrade in lubricant quality for emission-controlled four stroke heavy-duty diesel engines took effect on December 1, 1998, only four years after API CG-4, its predecessor. Engine manufactures have already requested Proposed Category 9 (PC-9) for licensing in January of 2002, accelerating the previously planned release in 2004 and further shortening the cycle to three years. A challenge faced by lubricant manufacturers is the disagreement among engine manufacturers on the topic of lubricant qualification testing. Presently, seven engine tests and six bench tests are proposed for PC-9 qualification. This makes lubricant qualification very expensive and time consuming.

In addition to EGR, numerous operational factors affect the level of soot contamination in the engine. Fuel injection timing, combustion chamber design, engine type, scavenge efficiency, air cleaner restriction, air/fuel ratio, low compression, excessive idling, lugging, etc. all affect soot levels. Soot enters the lubricant with exhaust gas in the form of blow-by, or it is deposited on cylinder walls and subsequently scraped off by the rings and deposited into the oil.

Increasing concentration of soot contamination causes a variety of problems summarized in Table 1 below:

Table 1

Strain on the lubricant's dispersant additive is among the more concerning effects of increasing soot loads. Soot particles are attracted to one another (by forces of the van der Waals type), agglomerating to form larger particles when they collide, presenting a greater risk to the system. The same forces cause soot to deposit onto machine surfaces. The job of the dispersant additive is to keep the soot particles finely divided and off of machine surfaces. It works by enveloping the soot particle in a single layer. Figure 2The polar head of the dispersant molecule clings to the particle directing the additives "oleophillic" tail outward to dissolve easily into the oil (see Figure 2 at right). By surrounding the particle and dissolving its tail in the oil, the dispersant additive suspends the soot particle in the oil, prohibiting it from agglomerating with other soot particles or depositing onto component surfaces. The dispersant additive provides once-through protection. Once it is depleted, dispersancy is lost, leaving the machine at risk.

Research has clearly concluded that soot increases the viscosity of the oil. Increased viscosity leads to higher temperatures, higher pumping costs and the risk of lubricant starvation, especially at start-up. Figure 3 below identifies the soot/viscosity relationship for various base oils.

Figure 3

Highly saturated base oils (API Groups II, III and IV), it seems from the research, resist soot thickening better than the lower quality Group I base oils containing a larger number of unsaturated molecules. These Group II, III and IV base oils exhibit later and less severe increases in viscosity than the Group I base oils. Research conducted by Lubrizol reveals that dispersancy concentration also plays a major role in reducing the soot thickening effect. Figure 4 below illustrates the increase in viscosity (expressed as multiples of the new oil’s base-line viscosity in cSt @ 100° C.) relative to varying soot concentration for oils with 1.2% and 4.8% dispersancy respectively.

Figure 4

In other research, Lubrizol assessed the effect of various soot loads on the component wear. Their results suggest that increasing soot load does not necessarily affect the wear rate (see Figure 5 below) as long as dispersancy performance remains good.

Figure 5

The researchers found in a study of roller follower wear on engines with increasing soot levels that the rate of wear is sporadic and not systematically related to the soot level. Conversely, they did find that dispersant level significantly affects the rate at which wear is generated. In their research, abrasion was identified as the cause for the roller follower wear and it was tied to soot dispersion. The study purportedly eliminated corrosive attack and abrasion caused by other particles as possible influencing factors.

The Lubrizol researchers concluded that wear is caused by the agglomeration and deposition of soot caused by dispersancy loss rather than high concentration of soot. That leaves the question: should oil analysts schedule oil changes based upon soot concentration or dispersancy performance? The answer is probably both. We need to increase our soot monitoring efforts to be sure, but according to Lubrizol, we should be equally interested in measuring dispersancy performance, a parameter not typically included in a diesel engine oil analysis program.

Measuring Soot and Dispersancy
The research by Lubrizol might lead one to conclude that soot measurement is not important and that efforts should focus entirely upon dispersion. This is not true. Soot concentration, especially the change in concentration, is very important because it provides a general indication of the health of the combustion process and identifies abnormal blow-by. Also, when dispersancy is effective but soot load is high, other contaminants like water and glycol can quickly knock out dispersancy performance without an increase in soot load. When soot loads are high, this sudden loss of dispersancy leads to rapid agglomeration and deposition of soot onto machine surfaces. The analyst must take this relationship into account when responding to water or glycol alarms in systems carrying a high soot load.

Diesel engine condition monitoring in the future will require increased focus upon measuring both soot concentration and dispersancy performance. Common methods for measuring soot and dispersancy performance are reviewed below.

Soot Load Measurement
Measurement of soot can be accomplished using a number of different methods. Below is a general review of each:

  • Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) - This widely accepted technique provides the most accurate estimate of the concentration of soot as a percent by weight. The test involves progressively heating the sample in a nitrogen-rich atmosphere over time to vaporize volatile fractions until the weight of the sample levels off, typically occurring at around 600º C. Then, the nitrogen environment is replaced by air and the temperature is further raised allowing the oil to oxidize until the weight again stabilizes. Soot concentration is then calculated by subtracting the weight of the volatile ash components from the weight of the original sample. While this technique is accurate, it is strictly a research level laboratory method and is very expensive, usually costing around $200 per test.

  • Infrared Analysis - Infrared Analysis has become very popular for measuring soot concentration. Results seem to correlate very well with TGA and the technique is relatively low cost, especially with the proliferation of labs now offering Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis. There are also several reasonably priced on-site instruments available for soot measurement (see the Wilks Infracal Soot Meter reviewed in the September/October 1998 issue of POA). Essentially, soot absorbs infrared energy. Unlike many parameters measured with FTIR, soot creates a broadband change in absorption (baseline shift). So, FTIR instruments generally search for soot in 2000 wavenumber region. That region is relatively clear of interference from other oil constituents or contaminants making soot measurement relatively easy. The primary interferences related to this method include the disproportionately increasing absorption of infrared energy as soot particles increase in size, and other particles, like dirt, also absorb broad-band infrared energy and are indistinguishable in measurement from soot.

  • Insolubles Test - This test involves the separation of insolubles from the oil after it has been mixed with various solvents like pentane and toluene. The pentane or toluene insolubles are removed by high-speed centrifugation or by filtration onto a membrane disc. When centrifuged, the insolubles are measured as either mass or volume. When filtered, the weight of the new filter is subtracted from that of the prepared filter to determine weight. The technique is relatively inexpensive and very well established. The main drawback is that all insolubles are measured together, not just the soot. Also, the solvent selected affects the outcome. If pentane is used, organic oxides are included in the measurement of total insolubles. Toluene leaves the organic oxides dissolved.

  • Light Extinction Measurement (LEM) - The LEM method, researched by Analysts, Inc., method involves casting light at the visible and near infrared frequencies through an object area containing a volume of oil. The light obscured by the oil, as measured by the voltage drop across the object area, is purported to vary with soot concentration. This technique offers simplicity, low cost and a quantitative result. The major drawback lies in the fact that anything that blocks or scatters light is subject to inclusion in the soot estimate (e.g., particles, water, air bubbles, insoluble oxidation by-products, etc.).

  • The Blotter Method - This sample method requires only a drop or two of oil on standard chromatography paper. The insolubles separate from the oil and provide a quick visual identification of soot. Further, the paper can be diluted in different solvents to provide an indication of the different insolubles present in the sample. The blotter method offers elegant simplicity, but fails to quantify soot concentration. However, a trained eye can estimate concentration given enough experience; but still, any quantification of soot load must be viewed as suspect.

Dispersancy Measurement
Unlike measuring soot concentration where numerous options exist, measuring dispersancy performance is a real challenge to the analyst. There are two ways to approach the issue: one can attempt to measure the concentration of the dispersant additive itself, or one can measure the dispersancy performance of the oil. For routine used oil analysis, the latter offers a much more promising solution.

Figure 6
Figure 6 – Blotter A shows good dispersancy, blotter B shows high soot load with marginal dispersancy, blotter C shows high soot load and failing dispersancy, blotter D shows failed dispersancy.
While the blotter test offers limited value measuring soot concentration, it provides an excellent assessment of the lubricant's dispersancy performance. An oil that is properly dispersing soot and other insolubles produces an evenly graduated blotter (see Figure 6A). A blotter indicating a high soot load, but even graduation, suggests the oil is still fit for service, but should be watched closely for degradation (see Figure 6B). When dispersancy begins to fail, the insolubles begin to form a dense ring on the exterior of the absorbing oil drop as seen in Figure 6C. Figure 6D indicates the characteristic dense black dot and sharp periphery that forms when the oil completely loses dispersancy performance. From a maintenance perspective, when the ring begins to form around on the exterior of the oil blotter, it is time to look at scheduling a drain. If the black dot is allowed to form, the situation is problematic because the undispersed portion of soot that has deposited upon surfaces will not be removed by the oil change. Often, several changes made at frequent intervals will be required to effectively scour the engine clean. Also, if dispersancy performance degrades at an unusually rapid pace, a more extensive review of combustion and ring performance should be undertaken.

Looking forward, oil analysis programs will have to increasingly combine monitoring of both soot load and dispersancy. Clear limits for soot have not been established. However, according to one industry expert the lubricant manufacturers will need to inform operators of the acceptable condemning limit for soot load. A cautionary limit should also be set at about 50% of the condemnation point. While dispersancy performance will play an increasingly important role in the proactive condition monitoring process to ensure that the lubricant is operating properly, soot load must be carefully trended too. Should dispersancy suddenly fail in a heavily loaded engine, agglomeration occurs rapidly, and it’s too late.

Conclusions
Since EPA regulations have and will continue to force the crankcase lubricant to serve as the "trash can" of the combustion process, we in the oil analysis business must respond with more aggressive and informative monitoring of soot and dispersancy performance. The engine oil analysis program of the future must combine routine measurement of the soot concentration with routine measurement of dispersancy performance. Measuring one or the other is not sufficient, especially if your organization seeks to extend oil drain intervals. New and improved methods for measuring soot concentration and dispersancy performance are required for lab, depot level and on-site oil analysis to ensure engine reliability under the EPA's strict new emission requirements.

References:

  1. Lubrizol On-line Reference Library (1998) "New Emissions Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines".
    www.lubrizol.com.


  2. Desjardins, J. and W. Seifert (1994) "Soot and Your Diesel Engine”. Lubrication System, Proceedings of the Joint Oil Analysis Program (JOAP) Conference.

  3. PC-9 Development Notebook, Infineum, 1999.

  4. Donnet, J., C. Peng and T. Wang (1997) "Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Study of Lubricating Oil Soots", Carbon Vol. 35, No. 6, pp. 853-854.

  5. Bondi, A. (1951) Physical Chemistry of Lubricating Oils, Reinhold, New York, New York.

  6. Lubrizol On-line Reference Library (1999) "How Base Oil Affects Soot Mediated Oil Thickening".
    www.lubrizol.com.


  7. Instrument Review - "The Soot Meter for Condition-Based Maintenance", Practicing Oil Analysis Magazine, September/October, 1998.

  8. Mansfield, C. (1999) - Email exchange between Dr. Clifton T. Mansfield, of Equilon Corp., and the author.

About the Author

Drew Troyer, Noria Corporation senior management, a recognized expert & leader in the fields of machinery lubrication, oil analysis and machinery reliability assurance, with responsibility over its education programs and technical services division. Widely published, with more than 70 articles, books ... Read More



40240

2014-03-10:     

The Agony of Diesel Engine Oil Particle Counts

Jim Fitch, Noria Corporation

If cleaner motor oil extends engine service life, why aren’t labs reporting particle counts?

Anyone who has worked in an oil analysis lab knows the challenges of counting and sizing particles in soot-laden diesel engine oil. Historically, most labs have chosen not to attempt particle counts with black oils. However, there is increasing user interest to have such numbers included in oil analysis reports, and some labs have already begun to comply using various instruments and methodologies.

The increasing interest in contaminant monitoring of crankcase oils is driven in part by the many studies that have reported the positive effects gained from improved filtration on engine service life. One such study by General Motors documented that upgraded filter performance reduced engine wear by 50 percent. Statistics like this are hard to trivialize. In condition monitoring, any property that is important to machine reliability and life extension should be a property that is measured, assuming it is technically and economically feasible. Of course, this is the point of considerable consternation by the oil labs when it comes to crankcase oils.

How does one perform practical particle counts on opaque fluids, achieving precision and cost efficiency at the same time? Before we examine the specific challenges of particle count methodologies, let’s review the various ways to assess the presence of destructive particles (other than soot) in used motor oils. These are listed in the following table:

Method Strengths Weaknesses
Elemental Analysis of Silicon – Related standards are ASTM D5185 and D6595). Dirt concentration is estimated based on the measured elemental concentration of silicon (assumed to be silica), a prominent component of dirt. Inexpensive. No additional testing is required. No interferences from soot or water. Quantitative. Does not count or size particles. No ISO Code is given. Elemental spectrometers have maximum particle size detection limits in the range of 5 to 7 microns. Many solid particles are not composed of silicon and are larger than 7 microns.
Total Insolubles (gravimetric or volumetric) – Related standards are ASTM D893-97, D4055-97 and D4898-90. Particles and other insolubles are removed and measured (weight or volume) by centrifuges of membrane filtration. Coagulants and solvents may be used to characterize/differentiate dispersed soot from other particles. Can measure particle concentrations, soot and soft particle suspensions collectively to less than 0.5 micron. Different membrane sizes can be use to approximate particle concentrations above defined sizes, such as 5 microns and 20 microns. Does not count particles above specific sizes. No ISO Code is given. No information is given on particle shape, hardness, or composition (unless the sediment is tested subsequently with XRF spectrometry).
Microscopic Particle Count - Related standard ISO 4407. Oil is passed through a membrane to exclude particles above a certain size. The particles left on the surface of the membrane are then counted by size microscopically. Using suitable rinse fluids, interferences from soot can generally be avoided. Actual count of solid particles above 4 microns can be obtained. Results can be reported as an ISO Code, typically just two range numbers. Shape and color of particles can be characterized visually. Unusual particles can be further examined for composition using SEM-EDX, etc. Labor intensive, tedious and costly. Reported results may vary between technicians.
Particle Count by Pore Blockage Method – Related standard BS 3406, pending ISO standard. Calibrated screen is used to approximate particle counts above certain sizes by pressure rise or flow decay methods. As an automatic particle count method, samples can be processed relatively quickly without need to dehydrate or deaerate. Generally not influenced by oil color, soot or water contamination. Calibration standards traceable to NIST can be used. Measures hard particles only. Can estimate particle counts and ISO Codes (two range numbers only). Cannot size and count particles across a broad range of sizes. Cannot give 3-range number ISO Codes. Does not provide information on particle composition, shape or color.
Automatic Optical Particle Count Method – Related standards are ISO 11500 and ISO 11171. Various similar methods but typically particles are counted by light blockage from particles passing in front of a laser beam. The interrupted laser beam is measured using a photodiode. Can count particles across a broad spectrum. Automatic configurations enable relatively high laboratory processing speed. Can give a 3-range number ISO Code. Calibration standards traceable to NIST can be used. Widely used and accepted method. Unless special sample preparation procedures are employed, interferences from water, soot and some oil additives may result. Even a small amount of dispersed soot can saturate the particle counter. Does not provide information on particle composition, shape or color. Soft semisolid particles are counted along with hard rigid particles.

From this table, it is seen that only two methods provide an automatic method to determine particle counts (pore blockage and light blockage). Nonetheless, a few labs remain committed to the tedious microscopic counting method, primarily for the benefit of being able to characterize the shape and composition of observed particles. There are a few labs that operate both optical and pore blockage counters in tandem. Typically, all water-based and opaque fluids are processed through the pore blockage instrument while all others go through the automatic optical particle counter.

As a practical matter, more than 90 percent of commercial labs use automatic optical particle counters only. To perform particle counts on engine oils, these labs are faced with the option of either buying a pore blockage counter or preparing the sample in such a way to facilitate the use of the optical particle counter. Following are some suggestions on sample preparation methods that can enable an optical particle counter to be used successfully with diesel engine oils.

Particle Resuspension Method: This involves passing the used motor oil, diluted with a thin solvent, through a square-weave, back-flushable screen (four microns). A low-viscosity, superclean hydraulic fluid (for example, MIL-H-5606B) is then passed in the reverse direction through the screen to resuspend the particles (excluding soot particles) for subsequent counting by the optical particle counter (after agitation, sonification and deaeration).

Motor Oil Dilution Method: Oil samples are screened for dispersancy first by using the blotter spot method (might as well report a dispersancy value with the oil analysis data while you’re at it). If the oil has good dispersancy, a small amount of the sample is diluted 10:1 with fresh, superclean and dry SAE 20 motor oil. The soot particles will be finely divided and typically less than one-half micron. Most of the emulsified water (if any) will also become solubilized in the motor oil diluent.

The diluted sample is then ready for processing with the optical particle counter. Do not report the four-micron ISO range number. The dispersed and diluted soot particles effectively fall below the radar screen of the optical particle counter. For oils that have lost dispersancy, particle counts will need to be determined using another method (such as pore blockage or microscopic methods).

Solvent Cut-back Method: Some labs have reported success introducing a cocktail of solvents into a fraction of the oil sample, then violently agitating to disperse and thin out the soot before particle counting. Beware that some solvents will actually coagulate the soot - the opposite of what you want to achieve. The objective is to reduce the concentration of the soot (avoiding small particle coincidence/saturation errors) and keep the soot unagglomerated (dispersed). An individual, dispersed soot particle is typically less than 0.1 micron and too small to be counted by the optical particle counter. Agglomerated soot can range more than five microns.

All oil analysis technologies have unique imperfections. These include problems associated with calibration, precision, repeatability, interferences, fluid compatibility, false negatives and others. However when these technologies, including the sample preparation method are used properly, valuable results can usually be obtained.

It is my opinion that routine particle counting of in-service diesel engine oils will eventually occur on a broad scale, especially for off-road equipment. Increasingly, I’ve asked owners of fleet equipment to request that particle counting be included in their diesel engine oil test slate. We’ve already seen excellent case studies that validate the importance of this practice. Making laboratories and users alike feel comfortable with this valuable metric is more than a quest, it’s a mandate.

About the Author

Jim Fitch,
Jim Fitch, a founder and CEO of Noria Corporation, has a wealth of experience in lubrication, oil analysis, and machinery failure investigations. He has advised hundreds of companies on developing ... Read More



40230

2013-08-13:     

Extending Diesel Engine Life and Fuel Economy with Canola Based Fuel Additives

By Professor P. B. Hertz, Mechanical Engineering Dept., University of Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan SK Canada.

Hydrotreated Low Sulfur Diesel Fuels

In the environmental interests of air quality, 1990's legislation was passed requiring the sulfur and aromatic content of diesel fuels to be reduced. Previous typical sulfur values of 0.5% S were cut 90% by refinery hydrotreating. Diesel fuels now must have sulfur levels below 0.05% or 500 ppm. This was effective in decreasing diesel exhaust particulate emissions. Exhaust catalyst performance was thereby improved, while the lower sulfuric acid byproducts of combustion helped decrease acid rain. Proposed 2006 Canada and US mid-distillate diesel fuel standards will require still further sulfur level reductions, to below 15 ppm or to only 0.03% of pre-1990 levels.

Diesel Fuel Lubricity Problems

Shortly after the introduction of these low sulfur fuels, it was realized that the hydrotreatment also removed beneficial oxygen and nitrogen compounds, which are associated with diesel fuel lubricity. Due to the lost wear protection, diesel injection pump failures were reported. Volkswagen EADA documented numerous lubricity-related failures in their Bosch series VE diesel injection pumps with Canadian, low-sulfur, winter diesel fuels. Excessive cam and roller wear failures were reported by VW in new pumps, which occurred between 3,000 km and 50,000 km of operation. Steps to restore fuel lubricity with additives applied at the refinery and/or in the field became necessary.

Laboratory Tests for Fuel Lubricity

Several laboratory bench tests were developed to quantify lubricity based on wear areas and friction coefficients. These included the high frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR), the scuffing load ball on cylinder lubricity evaluator (SLBOCLE) and the Munson Roller on Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator (M-ROCLE). In the HFRR test the wear scar size developed on a steel ball vibrating on a flat plate, lubricated with the test fuel, must not exceed 460 µm in diameter. Worldwide fuel lubricity surveys by Paramins in the U.K. indicated that Canadian diesel fuels were among the most deficient in the HFRR test. For years 1996, 1997, and 1998 Canadian low sulfur winter fuels produced considerably larger wear scars, averaging 590 µm in size.

The SLBOCLE test measures the maximum load a ball on rotating cylinder can sustain without experiencing scuffing wear. If the fuel supports 3100 grams without scuffing it is said to have passed the SLBOCLE lubricity test.

The University of Saskatchewan M-ROCLE test yields a dimensionless fuel lubricity number (LN). It is based on the roller wear area stress divided by the elastic contact stress and by the coefficient of friction. The former high sulfur (0.5%) diesel fuel obtained a LN slightly above 1.0 on the M-ROCLE machine. A 1998 survey of local commercial diesel fuels confirmed that the majority of both summer (No.2D) and winter (No.1D) fuels failed to reach the required M-ROCLE lubricity number of 1.0

M-ROCLE Lubricity of Commercial and Biological Fuel Additives

With support form the Saskatchewan Agriculture Development Fund, a number of commercial and vegetable-based lubricity additives were evaluated on the M-ROCLE machine.

DF-Unadditized Diesel FuelMOD-Mustard oil derivative
SFME-Sunflower methyl esterCEE-Canola ethyl ester
SG-Soy Gold (soy methyl ester)RSME-Rapeseed methyl ester
RSEE-Rapeseed ethyl esterLSEE-Linseed ethyl ester
LSME-Linseed methyl esterCME-Canola methyl ester
SFEE-Sunflower ethyl esterCOD-Canola oil derivative

Low sulfur reference diesel fuel was used with no additives and had a lubricity number of 0.813 using the M-ROCLE test. Alcohol esters and derivatives of different vegetable oils were added to the reference fuel at 1% by volume. The lubricity numbers are outline on above graph. All additives exceeded the minimum required lubricity of 1.0 with the canola oil derivative performing the best.

Vegetable sources examined were Soy, Flax, Sunflower, Mustard, Rapeseed, and Canola. Transesterification of these biological oils (triglycerides) with four different alcohols was accomplished by the U of Sask., Department of Chemical Engineering. Various catalysts effectively produced the biodiesel esters. Small amounts (<1.0%) of all vegetable esters were found capable of restoring the referenced hydrotreated diesel lubricity to acceptable M-ROCLE levels. It was discovered that the Canola Oil Derivative (COD) performed among the best in these lubricity tests. The Canola based esters were still effective at treatment rates down to the 0.1% (1000 ppm) range. Wear scar areas and friction coefficients were both lower with the Canola esters present. Lubricity numbers were shown to be a semi-log function of the treatment rates.

Compared to commercial additives, the Canola bio-additives proved very cost effective at the 1000-ppm application levels.

Influence of Fuel Lubricity on Engine Wear and Efficiency

As well as create havoc with fuel lubricated distributor-type injection pumps, the low lubricity fuels were logically suspected of increasing diesel engine wear and decreasing fuel economy. A lengthy series of field studies was initiated by the author in 1994 to compare engine wear rates and fuel economy using various hydrotreated low sulfur diesel fuels "without" and "with" the Canola additives applied. Field test daily logs included ambient temperatures, numbers of cold and hot engine starts, plus city and highway km driven. Road-load speeds and tire pressures were carefully monitored.

These first studies employed 1.8L Isuzu indirect-injected diesel powered Chevette test cars. As the tests proceeded, wear metal particles in the engine oil were frequently measured. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry, microscopic ferrography, and magnetic particle counts were employed to infer engine wear rates. The oil filter debris and engine oil physical characteristics were also analyzed at an independent laboratory. An encouraging 1995 result involved the treatment of unadditized, low sulfur winter diesel with 10% Canola methyl ester. The test data revealed a 30% decrease in iron wear rate and a small ~1% increase in fuel economy from the 10% CME in No.2 commercial diesel fuel. An 18% wear reduction in iron was measured at the 10% CME treatment, while the 5% CME produced a 30% wear reduction and 4.5% gain in fuel economy with the commercial summer fuel. Finally unadditized winter No.1 diesel fuel was compared in 1996 to the same fuel with 5% additions of CME in the '82 and '85 Chevettes. The presence of the Canola ester decreased wear iron by 42% and 20% respectively, in these vehicles. Winter fuel economy increased by 27% and 21% respectively, for both units. This unusually large increase in fuel economy was attributed to both somewhat warmer weather and the 5% CME fuel additive.

These engines performed well with the biodiesel additives present, even at -35˚C.

Engine Performance with Canola Additives made from Heated Seed

During 1997 a winter field study, commissioned by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, was expanded to include Canola esters made from sub-standard, heated, Canola seed. A Dodge/Cummins 5.9L truck, a Ford/Mazda 2.0L car, and a Volvo/Volkswagen 2.4L car were the winter test vehicles used. (See Chart 3) When 2% CME was placed in unadditized winter diesel in the direct-injected Cummins, ICP engine wear iron was decreased by 8%, while magnetic wear iron decreased by 23%. Ferrographic wear particles were some 30% lower and oil filter debris was reduced by 21% in the Cummins diesel, while fuel economy improved by 6% for the Canola Methyl Ester additive. Using 1% CME, the Volvo indicated a 24% decrease in ICP wear iron while fuel economy improved by some 7%. When a Canola Oil Derivative (COD), also obtained from heated seed, was tried at 1% in the Mazda diesel, it responded with a 39% decrease in spectrometric wear iron and indicated a 10% increase in fuel economy under arctic-like conditions.

Canola Oil Derivative Additized Fuels Compared to Commercial Diesel

Sponsored by the Saskatchewan Canola Development Commission, the efficacy of COD was further challenged during the summer of 1997 in two 10,000-km tests with the Ford/Mazda diesel. Here the low lubricity unadditized winter No. 1D reference fuel was supplemented with just 1% COD and compared to the recommended commercial summer No.2D. The 1% COD treatment again managed to decrease ICP engine wear iron by 17% and oil filter debris by 50%. However the lower energy content of the lighter winter diesel resulted in a 9% drop in fuel economy compared to the more dense No.2 fuel under hot summer conditions.

Winter of 1998 checked the performance of 0.5% COD in commercial winter diesel fuel. This time the usual spectrometry wear iron was not significantly changed although magnetic iron dropped 53%, ferrography was some 15% lower, and filter wear debris was 25% less with the Canola Oil Derivative present. Fuel economy was improved by 4% in this Ford/Mazda 1998 test.

Minimal Canola Treatment Response in a VW TDI

The most recent research vehicle was a 1998 Volkswagen NewBeetle 1.9L TDI. After break-in, an alternative brand of low lubricity commercial winter diesel fuel was substituted and found to increase established engine wear rates by ten-fold! The TDI normal ICP wear rose from 2 ppm FE/1000km to over 20 ppm FE/1000km with this fuel! The addition of 0.5% CME, when applied in this commercial winter diesel fuel, was found able to reduce engine wear by 45% and increase fuel economy by 2% (See Chart 4). Other commercial winter fuels indicated similar percentage wear reductions of 57%, 52%, and 50% while corresponding fuel economy numbers rose by 3%, 13%, and 6% for these same winter tests.

Summer 1999 data comparing No.2D commercial diesel to the same fuel containing 0.2% COD revealed a decrease in TDI wear iron of 36% while fuel economy rose by some 11%. The influence of only 0.1% COD in seasonal No.1-2D fuels provided a wear reduction of up to 27% with little change in fuel economy. When, in 2000, another brand of winter diesel fuel was supplemented with 0.1% of the Canola Oil Derivative, a wear reduction of 9% was measured while fuel economy rose by some 3%. The vehicle operated without difficulties with the Canola additives present.

Conclusions

The application of Canola based lubricity additives in both unadditized and commercial low sulfur diesel fuels has been shown effective in reducing engine wear by as much as one-half, thereby potentially doubling diesel engine life. Fuel economy gains of up to 13% have also been recorded. These engine field tests corroborate the smaller wear areas and lower friction coefficients measured in M-ROCLE lubricity bench tests for the Canola supplemented diesel fuels. The engine wear reductions and fuel economy improvements appear to be directly related to diesel fuel lubricity.

Based on these encouraging research results, it is concluded that the Canola lubricity additives could extend diesel engine life and fuel economy when applied in hydrotreated, low sulfur, and diesel fuels. It would seem prudent for refiners to more thoroughly investigate, and seriously consider the production and introduction of these effective Canola-based lubricity additives to their future mid-distillate fuels.

References

Contact S.C.D.C. at 306-975-0262 or scdc@scdc.sk.ca for further information.



40210

2012-05-12:     

Four Lethal Diesel Engine Oil Contaminants

Jim Fitch, Noria Corporation

Some contaminants are important to monitor and analyze because they are root causes of premature oil degradation and engine failure. Other contaminants are symptomatic of an active failure condition that requires a response other than just an oil change. For instance, seal damage leading to fuel dilution or glycol contamination cannot be remedied by performing an oil change or switching to a better quality lubricant. Such symptom-based contaminants are also root causes that enable new failures to occur. The value of oil analysis in detecting problems early goes without saying.

Any one of the contaminants described below is capable of causing premature or even sudden engine failure. I've left dirt contamination off the list because I covered particle-induced engine failures in a previous column. It is worth noting that problems are more pronounced when contamination combos exist, such as high soot load with glycol or high soot load with fuel dilution. There are numerous failure pathways and consequential sequence of events. Thousands of diesel engines fail prematurely each year aided by the presences of glycol, fuel, soot and water in the engine oil.

Glycol
Glycol enters diesel engine motor oils as a result of defective seals, blown head gaskets, cracked cylinder heads, corrosion damage and cavitation. One study found glycol in 8.6 percent of 100,000 diesel engine samples tested. A separate study of 11,000 long-haul trucks found severe levels of glycol in 1.5 percent of samples and minor amounts of glycol in 16 percent of samples. The following are some of the risks associated with glycol contamination:

  • Just 0.4 percent coolant containing glycol in diesel engine oil is enough to coagulate soot and cause a dump-out condition leading to sludge, deposits, oil flow restrictions and filter blockage.

  • According to one study, glycol contamination results in wear rates 10 times greater than water contamination alone.

  • Glycol reacts with oil additives causing precipitation. For instance, an important antiwear additive in motor oils, zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP), will form reaction products and plug filters when oil is contaminated with glycol. This leads to loss of antiwear and antioxidant performance as well.

  • Glycol has led to cold seizure of engines.

  • Ethylene glycol oxidizes into corrosive acids, including the following: glycolic acid, oxalic acid, formic acid and carbonic acid. These acids cause a rapid drop in the oil's alkalinity (base number), resulting in an unprotected corrosive environment and base oil oxidation.

  • Oil balls (abrasive spherical contaminants) form from the reaction of calcium sulfonate detergent additives (found in nearly all motor oils) and glycol contamination. These balls are a known cause of damage to crankcase bearings and other frictional surfaces within an engine.

  • Glycol contamination substantially increases oil viscosity which impairs lubrication and oil cooling.

Fuel Dilution
Frequent starts of an engine, excessive idling and cold running conditions can lead to moderate fuel dilution problems. Severe dilution (excess of two percent) is associated with leakage, fuel injector problems and impaired combustion efficiency. These are symptomatic of serious conditions that cannot be corrected by an oil change. According to one reference, 0.36 percent of total fuel consumption ends up in the crankcase. Problems associated with fuel dilution include:

  • Diesel fuel dilution in cold operating conditions can cause waxing. During startup, this can result in low oil pressure and starvation conditions.

  • Diesel fuel carries unsaturated aromatic molecules into the motor oil which are pro-oxidants. This can result in a premature loss of base number (loss of corrosion protection) and oxidative thickening of the motor oil, causing deposits and mild starvation.

  • Fuel dilution can drop the viscosity of a motor oil from say, a 15W40 to a 5W20. This collapses critical oil film thicknesses, resulting in premature combustion zone wear (piston, rings and liner) and crankcase bearing wear.

  • Fuel dilution from defective injectors commonly causes wash-down of oil on cylinder liners which accelerates ring, piston and cylinder wear. It also causes high blow-by conditions and increased oil consumption (reverse blow-by).

  • Severe fuel dilution dilutes the concentration of oil additives and hence, diluting their effectiveness.

  • Fuel dilution by biodiesel may result in higher than normal problems compared to diesel refined by crude stock. These problems include oxidation stability, filter plugging issues, deposit formation and volatility resulting in crankcase accumulations.

Soot
Soot is a by-product of combustion and exists in all in-service diesel engine motor oils. It reaches the engine by various means of blow-by during engine operation. While the presence of soot is normal and expected for a given number of miles or hours of service on an engine oil, the concentration and state of soot may be abnormal, signaling a problem with the engine and/or a need for an oil change. Following are some issues related to soot contamination:

  • Combustion efficiency is directly related to the soot generation rate. Poor ignition timing, restricted air filter and excessive ring clearance cause high soot load. Combustion problems are not solved by an oil change.

  • New diesel engines designed for lower emissions have higher injection pressures. This corresponds to increased sensitivity to abrasive wear (for example, from soot) between rocker, shaft and rocker bearing and can lead to rocker arm seizure. New exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) units on diesel engines amplify the amount and abrasivity of soot production.

  • Viscosity increases with soot load. However, high dispersancy associated with some modern engine oils may increase viscosity with soot even more. High viscosity corresponds to cold-start problems and risk of oil starvation.

  • Soot and sludge in engines deposit or separate from the oil in the following areas, all presenting risks to engine reliability including rocker boxes, valve covers, oil pans and head deck.

  • Deposits on engine surfaces interfere with combustion efficiency and fuel/oil economy.

  • Soot polishes off protective antiwear soap films in boundary zones such as cam and cam-follower zones.

  • Carbon jacking from the buildup of soot and sludge behind piston rings in grooves can cause rapid wear of rings and cylinder walls. This can cause broken or severely damaged rings during cold-start conditions.

Water
Water is one of the most destructive contaminants in most all lubricants. It attacks additives, induces base oil oxidation and interferes with oil film production. Low levels of water contamination are normal in engine oils. High levels of water ingression merit attention and are rarely correctable by performing an oil change. The following are some additional notes on water contamination:

  • Long idling in wintertime causes water condensation in crankcase, which leads to loss of base number and corrosive attack on surfaces, oxidation of the oil, etc.

  • Emulsified water can mop up dead additives, soot, oxidation products and sludge. When mobilized by flowing oil, these globular pools of sludge can knock out filters and restrict oil flow to bearings, pistons and the valve deck.

  • Water sharply increases the corrosive potential of common acids found in motor oil.

Failure Development Period
The failure development period can vary considerably for these contaminants. Most sudden-death failures from moderate levels of contamination will usually have one or more aggravating factors (the combo effect). Conversely, massive concentrations of one or more of these contaminants can result in sudden-death failures unaided by an aggravating circumstance. There are dozens of other aggravating factors that can drastically shorten the failure development period as well. More typical is when a moderate problem goes unnoticed and develops over time. This can shorten engine life from say, 750,000 miles to 300,000 miles.

The cumulative effect of oil contamination on engine reliability, fuel economy, exhaust stream emissions and maintenance cost of a large fleet is massive. There are no motor oil additives that control the damage caused by these contaminants. Therefore, proactive maintenance and oil analysis are critical strategies to counteract risks.

About the Author

Jim Fitch,
Jim Fitch, a founder and CEO of Noria Corporation, has a wealth of experience in lubrication, oil analysis, and machinery failure investigations. He has advised hundreds of companies on developing ... Read More



40220

2011-05-22:     

Mother Earth News Logo

President Obama Orders Fuel Efficiency Standards for Trucks
http://www.motherearthnews.com/green-transportation/president-obama-orders-fuel-efficiency-standards-for-trucks.aspx#axzz2TTXKEtqk

EERE Network News
May 2011

President Barack Obama signed a Presidential Memorandum on May 21, directing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) to create the first national policy to increase the fuel efficiency of medium- and heavy-duty trucks while decreasing their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The directive will target new trucks from the 2014-2018 model years. U.S. trucks consume more than two million barrels of oil every day and average 6.1 miles per gallon, while emitting 20% of the GHG pollution related to U.S. transportation. The president also called for an extension of the groundbreaking fuel efficiency and GHG emissions policy he announced on May 19, 2009, which covers cars and light-duty trucks in the model years 2012 to 2016. That national policy represented an unprecedented collaboration between the DOT, the EPA, the world's largest auto manufacturers, the United Auto Workers, leaders in the environmental community, the State of California, and other state governments. The president wants that policy extended to cars and light-duty trucks produced in model years 2017 and beyond.

To further bolster the move towards cleaner vehicles, President Obama also directed DOE to increase its support for the deployment of advanced vehicles, including electric vehicles. In addition, he directed the EPA to explore ways to cut vehicle emissions of pollutants other than greenhouse gases. In his remarks announcing the memorandum, the president called for public and private sector cooperation to develop the advanced infrastructure that will be necessary for plug-in hybrids and electric vehicles. The president said his administration will work to diversify the U.S. fuel mix, including biofuels, natural gas, and other cleaner sources of energy. See the White House press release, the president's remarks, the Presidential Memorandum, and an article on the light vehicle standards from the April 7 edition of the EERE Network News.

Boosting the fuel economy of new medium- and heavy-duty vehicles could create as many as 124,000 new jobs nationwide by 2030, curb U.S. oil dependence, and save truckers thousands of dollars annually at the gas pump, according to a new report from the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) and CALSTART, a leading advanced transportation technologies consortium. The report, "Delivering Jobs: The Economic Costs and Benefits of Improving Heavy Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy," found that increasing the fuel economy of medium- and heavy-duty trucks by 3.7 miles per gallon over the next 20 years would generate net job growth for all 50 states. By 2030, the UCS report projected a net economy-wide savings of $24 billion.

Boosting the fuel economy of new medium- and heavy-duty vehicles could create as many as 124,000 new jobs nationwide by 2030, curb U.S. oil dependence, and save truckers thousands of dollars annually at the gas pump, according to a new report from the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) and CALSTART, a leading advanced transportation technologies consortium. The report, "Delivering Jobs: The Economic Costs and Benefits of Improving Heavy Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy," found that increasing the fuel economy of medium- and heavy-duty trucks by 3.7 miles per gallon over the next 20 years would generate net job growth for all 50 states. By 2030, the UCS report projected a net economy-wide savings of $24 billion.

Reprinted from EERE Network News, a free newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy.

Read more: http://www.motherearthnews.com/green-transportation/president-obama-orders-fuel-efficiency-standards-for-trucks.aspx#ixzz2TToEeiVl



40180

2010-04-26:     

rand.org

Cost and Health Consequences of Air Pollution in California

Click Here to read article

In this article, authors John A. Romley, Andrew Hackbarth and Dana P. Goldman of Rand Corporation examine how California's failure to meet federal air quality standards has affected hospitalizations and insurers' costs.

Just click on the page image at the right to read the Rand article. To download a printable copy click here to download.

For more information on how Diesel TEK Inc. technology can help mitigate such losses and improve environmental health, E-mail: info@dieseltek.com or vist the web site: http://www.dieseltek.com.



40160

2010-01-04:     

E-Trucker (Online Magazine)

Engine Flush Service and Fuel Additive

Diesel TEK Engine Flush Service and Diesel TEK Fuel Additive are the two parts of the maintenance program offered by Diesel TEK as a cost-effective solution to increase mileage and lengthen the life of truck engines, even in the face of soaring fuel costs, the company says. The one-two punch of the engine flush plus the fuel additives means better mileage, more power and years of life added to a truck.

The engine flush service removes the diesel particulate matter to improve engine efficiency and reduce wear and tear. It’s now available at an ever-growing number of service centers across the nation.

Heated lubricating oil containing concentrated detergents is pumped through the engine, running out through an oil pan plug adapter and then through two 3-micron filters. The fuel additive causes the fuel to burn longer and cleaner, and adds lubrication.

With the degree of clean-up obtained from a process like this, another benefit is the reduction of emissions.

See the original article: www.etrucker.com

For more information, contact Diesel TEK Inc. E-mail: info@dieseltek.com or vist the web site: http://www.dieseltek.com.



40150

2009-04-13:     

Over The Road (Magazine)

Keep Trucking Profits from Going Up in Smoke

Environmental Efforts

By Bruce Boyers -- Over The Road Magazine, April 2009

Average citizens don't know how dearly the owner-operators and fleets are paying to keep it all going these days. Thanks to skyrocketing costs of fuel, they're running on a dangerously thinning margin of profitability.

It's not just the fuel cost, however. It's also about what's happening as that fuel runs through the engine. Diesel fuel inherently burns dirty, and common oil filters only catch the larger particles. Smaller ones go right on through and cause considerable wear and tear on an engine, and many just get permanently lodged in there and do continuous damage. So not only are fuel prices gouging the trucker, but the life of the rig is being shortened as it is driven.

nother factor adds to the problem. Diesel fuel has now had its sulfer content considerably lowered to prevent damage to catalytic converters and particulate traps on newer trucks. Sulfur has a high lubrication value, and now that it's mostly gone, the fuel itself introduces a higher-than-ever abrasion factor.

While nothing can be done about the cost of fuel, if there were an easy way to keep all those particles out of the engine and re-introduce the lubricating property to fuel, higher mileage could be obtained and the lives of trucks could be considerably lengthened. And for the first time in a long time, that would mean a wider profit margin for independent truckers and fleets.

According to a study published by General Moters and the Society of Automotive Engineers, an oil filter that catches particulates down to 5 microns will yield a "50% or better increase in the service life of the unit." This means an increas of at least half the life of the vehicle. Unfortunately, however, the average oil filter only catches particles that are 25 to 40 microns. A micron is a pretty small measurement; for example, a human hair is four to ten microns. Small though they are, these particles circulate through the bearings and polished surfaces of an engine, grinding away its life. So if the normal oil filter can't catch them, how can these particles be removed? Some operators are turning to a new technology that effectively provides engine flushes for diesel trucks, completely cleaning those particles out.

While common for automobiles, engine flushes have not existed for trucks in the past. This has to do with the fact that adapters are needed to attach the cleaning machine to the oil-filterr port, and trucks just required too wide a variety of adapters. A company called Diesel TEK has overcome that barrier now, ant their engine flush service is now available at an ever-growing number of service centers across the nation. A heated lubricating oil containing concentrated detergents is pumped through the engine, running out through an oil pan plug adapter and then through two 3-micron filters. Needless to say, the results are astonishing.

"I sat there and watched them and I couldn't believe my eyes," said Randy Whitakerr, a fleet driver who recently had the service performed on his truck. "The soot and the junk that was coming out of my engine through the oil compartment was just black, nasty, sludgy looking stuff. And I'm not talking little bitty pieces—there were pieces in there the size of a dime." Randy's truck had over a million miles on it, and normal oil changes cannot remove such particles. You can guess what had built up in that engine.

The results? "Normally when we change our oil in these semis, as soon as you start it up and you drive 50 miles the oil is black because of the simple fact that you can't get all of the oil out of an engine for an oil change," Whitaker said. "But when they were done with that flush, the oil was totally clear, and it took almost theree and a half weeks before my oil showed any color differential. The inside of my motor was as clean or cleaner than a brand spanking new motor."

"Truckers have been amazed," said Paul Varela, owner of General Truck Supplies in Wilmington, California, who delivers the flushing service. "They've noticed less soot coming out the exhaust pipes, and when they checked the dipstick it was pretty clean. They've also noticed a big difference in the mileage."

Whitaker also noticed a major difference in the truck's performance "Before the service, I was getting right around 5.1 or 5.2 miles per gallon," he reported. "On my last trip, I got right at 7 miles to the gallon. My truck also had more power."

The technology for this flushing process was invented by Erik Waelput, currently a principal and Vice President of AEC Group. "The initial idea came out of the study conducted by the Society of Automotive Engineers in the eighties, a study done because of so much high wear on diesel engines," Waelput said. "When they cleaned the engines so that there were not contaminants above ten microns, it basically improved the lifespan of the engine by almost double. Then they went to testing below three microns, and according to the study if you can filter out particles below three microns and change the oil regularly, you will have no wear on the moving parts of the engine. The fuel economy is improved dramatically because you no longer have any drag or friction. It's basically preventative maintenance that will probably double the life of that engine."

It is recommended that this service be performed every third oil change. It takes less than half an hour, so a trucker can be back on the road in no time. The cleaning solution consists of a light lubricating oil with the same detergents you would find in a high-grade motor oil, only concentrated seven times higher.

The engine flush is one of two parts of a good maintenance program. The second is a fuel additive which causes the fuel to burn longer and cleaner, and also add lubrication.

"When we clean all the particulates out and keep them out, it reduces what the engine has to work harder to burn," said Eric Wheeler, CEO of Diesel TEK, Inc.. "Our Ester-based fuel additive, the second part of the program, causses a longer fuel burn during the combustion cycle so you don't have this quick flash and it is over. It actually continues to burn as the entire combustion process occurs and so there is no unburned fuel remaining."

The one-two punch of the engine flush plus the fuel additives mean better mileage, more power and years of life added to a truck. Of course, with the degree of cleanup obtained from a process like this, another benefit is the reduction of emissions. While truckers are going to care more for the fact that they're getting better mileage and saving money on fuel, as well as the fact that they've lengthened the lives of their breadwinners, they can also take pride in the fact that they're actually having a positive impact on the environment that's whizzing by them night and day along the highways.

Another environmental plus is the fact that the cleaning solution, once run through trucks, requires no special handling; it can be disposed of right along with waste oil.

"The best drivers are looking for everything to make the better profit," Whitaker concluded, "If you're a company driver, you've got to do everything you can to help your boss out, because if he ain't making money, you won't have a job. If someone can't make a profit, he's not going to be able to pay for insurance and he's not going to be able to buy the fuel. Doing this program, upping our fuel mileage any way we can, means there's a little bit bigger profit margin for us and we can keep going."

For more information, contact Diesel TEK Inc. E-mail: info@dieseltek.com or vist the web site: http://www.dieseltek.com.



40140

2009-03-18:     

Associated Construction

Keep Truck Operating Costs from Going Up in Smoke

Fleets are running on a dangerously thinning margin of profitability

By Bruce Boyers -- Associated Construction Publications, 3/18/2009

Medium trucks are a vital link in our troubled economy, enabling service fleets and deliveries all across America. But while goods and services keep on arriving, average citizens don’t know how dearly the owner-operators and fleets are paying to keep it all going.

Thanks to unpredictable diesel fuel costs and increasing emission regulation and laws, fleets are running on a dangerously thinning margin of profitability.

It’s not just the fuel cost, however. It’s also what’s happening as that fuel runs through the engine. Diesel fuel inherently burns dirty, and common oil filters only catch the larger particles. Smaller ones go right on through and cause considerable wear and tear on an engine, and many just get permanently lodged in there and do continuous damage. Not only are fuel prices and emission restrictions gouging owners, but also the life of the truck is being shortened as it is driven.

Diesel fuel has now had its sulfur content considerably lowered to ultra low levels preventing damage to catalytic converters and particulate traps on newer 2007 and beyond vehicles. Sulfur removal is done through a unique hydro treating process that depletes the lubricating value of the new ultra low fuel. While sulfur has little to no lubricating value, the national standard ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel has resulted in a diesel fuel with a higher-than ever abrasion factor.

While there is little that can be done to control the cost of diesel fuel, there is an easy way to keep an engine clean from all those abrasive particles and re-introduce the lubricating properties to diesel fuel. The potential result is more power, higher mileage and the life of the diesel engine considerably lengthened. And for the first time in a long time, that would mean a wider profit margin for independent operators and fleets.

Gunk Inside Your Engine

DieselTek Engine Flush Machine
The one-two punch of the engine flush plus the fuel additives mean better mileage, more power and years of life added to a truck.

According to a study published by General Motors and the Society of Automotive Engineers, an oil filter that catches particulates down to 5 microns will yield a "50 percent or better increase in the service life of the unit." Yes, that means an increase of at least half the life of the vehicle! Unfortunately, however, the average oil filter only catches particles that are 25 to 40 microns. In case you haven’t read up on your science lately, a micron is a pretty small measurement; for example, a human hair is four to ten microns. Small though they are, these particles circulate through the bearings and polished surfaces of an engine, grinding away its life.

So if they can’t be caught by the normal oil filter, how might these particles be removed? A new technology has arrived that cost effectively provides engine flushes for diesel engines, completely cleaning those particles out.

While common for gasoline engines, engine flushes have not been regularly available for diesel engines in the past. This has to do with the fact adapters are needed to attach the cleaning machine to the oil-filter port, and these engines just required too wide a variety of adapters. A company called Diesel TEK has overcome that barrier now, and their engine flush service is now available at an ever-growing number of service centers across the nation. A heated lubricating oil containing concentrated detergents is pumped through the engine, running out through an oil pan plug adapter and then through two 3-micron filters. Needless to say, the results are astonishing.

Current testing of the Diesel TEK Engine Flush System at California Environmental Engineering Laboratories

After completing the Diesel TEK Engine Flush on the test engine, the emissions test showed the following results:

  • Total Hydrocarbons -16%
  • Carbon Monoxide -53%
  • Particulate Matter -65%
  • Fuel Economy +2%

The reduction of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate matter coupled with the increase in fuel economy indicates that the clean engine operates more efficiency resulting in more complete combustion of fuel. On road testing supports this theory as drivers regularly report more power and performance with the higher oil pressure and the engine running cooler after being flushed.

"I watched the oil being drained from my truck, and it was really black and very dirty," said Ocea, founder of Travel Wellness, who drives a medium duty diesel truck with a 6.7-liter Cummings Turbo Diesel Engine in conducting her business. "That in itself was amazing, because the truck only had 60,000 miles on it."

The results?

"When they were done, my engine was back to the state it was in when it was brand-new, which I know helps with the life of the engine, and the oil was completely clear."

Ocea also noticed a major difference in the truck’s performance. "My mileage has increased by 3 to 5 miles per gallon," she said. "I’m now getting 21 to 23 gallons on the interstate."

"The thing I really like about Diesel TEK it’s a technology that’s useable right now," Ocea continued. "Unlike biodiesel fuel, it doesn’t cause you to have to go out of your way to try to find a certain kind of fuel because diesel is sold all over America."

The technology for this flushing process was invented by Eric Waelput, currently a principal and vice president of AEC Group. "The initial idea came out of the study conducted by the Society of Automotive Engineers in the 1980s, a study done because of so much high wear on diesel engines," Waelput said. "When they cleaned the engines so that there were no contaminants above 10 microns, it basically improved the lifespan of the engine by almost double. Then they went to testing to below three microns, and according to the study if you can filter out particles below three microns and change the oil regularly, you will have no wear on the moving parts of the engine. The fuel economy is improved dramatically because you no longer have any drag or friction. It’s basically preventative maintenance that will probably double the life of that engine." AEC group has formed a strategic alliance with Diesel TEK for the exclusive licensing of the technology.

It is recommended that this service be performed every third oil change. It takes less than half an hour, so a truck can be back on the road in no time.

Keeping It Squeaky Clean

The engine flush is one of two parts of a good maintenance program. The second is fuel additives which cause the fuel to burn longer and cleaner, and also add lubrication.

"When we clean all the particulates out and keep them out, it reduces what the engine has to work harder to burn," said Eric Wheeler, CEO of Diesel TEK. "Our fuel additive, the second part of the program, causes the fuel to burn longer during the combustion process. Normally, you get a quick ‘combustion flash’ and the combustion is over. With the Diesel TEK fuel additive the diesel fuel burns throughout the combustion process resulting in more power and fuel economy and fewer emission pollutants in the exhaust."

The Diesel TEK fuel additive is an ester based solution that restores the lubricating characteristics to ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel while it cleans carbon deposits in the combustion chamber and enhances the combustion process.

The one-two punch of the engine flush plus the fuel additives mean better mileage, more power and years of life added to a truck.

About that Environment...

Of course, with the degree of clean-up obtained from a process like this, another benefit is the reduction of emissions. While operators of medium trucks are going to care more for the fact that they’re getting better mileage and saving money on fuel, as well as the fact that they’ve lengthened the lives of their vehicles, they can also take pride in the fact that they’re actually having a positive impact on the environment that’s whizzing by them as they drive.

"I’m very much excited and involved in the Green movement in America right now, so I’m  pleased that I’ve greatly reduced particles going into the air and that I’m helping the environment," said Ocea. "I am already spreading the word in the entertainment industry, in which I work."

Another environmental plus is the fact that the cleaning solution, once run through trucks, requires no special handling; it can be disposed of right along with waste oil.

The Bottom Line

Companies that maintain fleets of medium trucks as well as owner-operators are always looking for ways to improve profit. Regular implementation of a program such as this adds years of life to an engine and improves mileage — meaning a wider cushion for that all-important bottom line.

For more information, visit the web site: www.ceecalif.com in Santa Ana, CA, an EPA & California Air Resource Board certified emissions testing laboratory, was completed in February, 2009 on a 1991 400hp Detroit Series 60 diesel test engine. http://www.dieseltek.com

(Bruce Boyers is an independent writer based in Glendale, CA.)



40110

2009-02-27:     

FleetOwner - Online

Could New Jersey port adopt California Clean Trucks Program?

By Justin Carretta, FleetOwner online news editor
February 27, 2009

Port of New Jersey The average vehicle age for trucks servicing the Port of New York/New Jersey is more than a decade old and the port is unable to maintain a strong labor force due to low pay and operational inefficiencies, according to a new study completed by professors David Bensman and Yael Bromberg of Rutgers University's School of Management and Labor Relations.

According to the report, the average port trucker drives a vehicle that is 11 years old because they cannot afford to buy or lease low-emission, high-efficiency diesel trucks. The older vehicles pollute at least ten times more than modern trucks while consuming more fuel, costing more to maintain and requiring more frequent repairs.

With the California ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach implementing its Clean Trucks Program (CTP), requiring that trucks servicing the ports release fewer emissions, calls have come to implement similar plans at other U.S. ports.

"I think they could implement a similar plan [to California]," Bensman told FleetOwner. "The EPA [Environmental Protection Agency] would have to say to the Port Authority that they have to contribute towards getting the state into compliance. But it's not going to happen unless there is a public clamor for it."

However, Bensman noted that the port—third largest in the U.S. behind Los Angeles/Long Beach and Houston—is structured somewhat differently than other large ports as it is less involved in intermodal activity, with 85% of the containers that pass through staying in the New York metro area.

The report noted that nearly three-quarters of the approximately 7,000 port truckers that deliver and pick up containers at the ports are independent contractors who are paid on a per-load basis. They make two or three trips a day, spending an average of two unpaid hours waiting on line each trip, Bensman said.

"Since the de-regulation in 1980, port trucking has become so hyper-competitive that it makes it hard to keep a stable labor force," Bensman said. Since they are not allowed to make deliveries for another company, the median driver reported that he changed jobs "once every couple years," with 15% of the drivers reporting they changed jobs several times a year due to pay disputes.

In addition, drivers reported they suffered from high levels of stress, high blood pressure, asthma and work-related chronic health conditions and injuries that their employers usually take no action towards, according to the study.

Bensman said that if drivers were paid for their time rather than by load, it would force better coordination and help the drivers make enough deliveries in a day to get by, ensuring a more stable workforce.

"The truckers' low pay and independent contractor status impede the efficiency of New Jersey's logistics system, causing delays, unpredictable delivery times, highway congestion, congestion within the terminals, air pollution, and missing or lost containers," the report said. "As a consequence, New Jersey's logistics system has built in extra capacity, warehousing costs, and time cushions. The 'just-in-time' logistics model heralded a decade ago has given way to a 'just-in-case' reality. This adds billions of dollars to the cost of doing business in New Jersey."


The complete article can be viewed at: by clicking here.



40100

2009-02-20:     

thetrucker.com

Diesel TEK comes up with way to flush diesel engine

By Bruce Boyers
The Trucker News Services
2/20/2009

DieselTEK™ Engine FlushGLENDALE, Calif. — Average citizens don’t know how dearly the owner-operators and fleets are paying to keep it all going these days.

Thanks to skyrocketing costs of fuel, they’re running on a dangerously thinning margin of profitability.

It’s not just the fuel costs, however.

It’s also about what’s happening as that fuel runs through the engine.

Diesel fuel inherently burns dirty and common oil filters only catch the larger particles.

Smaller ones go right on through and cause considerable wear and tear on an engine, and many just get permanently lodged in there and do continuous damage.

So not only are fuel prices gouging the trucker, but the life of the rig is being shortened as it is driven.

Another factor adds to the problem.

Diesel fuel has now had its sulfur content considerably lowered to prevent damage to catalytic converters and particulate traps on newer trucks.

Sulfur has a high lubrication value, and now that it’s mostly gone, the fuel itself introduces a higher-than-ever abrasion factor.

While nothing can be done about the cost of fuel, if there were an easy way to keep all those particles out of the engine and re-introduce the lubricating property to fuel, higher mileage could be obtained and the lives of trucks could be considerably lengthened.

And for the first time in a long time, that would mean a wider profit margin for independent truckers and fleets.

According to a study published by General Motors and the Society of Automotive Engineers, an oil filter that catches particulates down to 5 microns will yield a “50 percent or better increase in the service life of the unit.”

This means an increase of at least half the life of the vehicle.

Unfortunately, however, the average oil filter only catches particles that are 25 to 40 microns.

A micron is a pretty small measurement; for example, a human hair is four to 10 microns. Small though they are, these particles circulate through the bearings and polished surfaces of an engine, grinding away its life.

So if the normal oil filter can’t catch them, how can these particles be removed?

Some operators are turning to a new technology that effectively provides engine flushes for diesel trucks, completely cleaning those particles out.

While common for automobiles, engine flushes have not existed for trucks in the past.

This has to do with the fact that adapters are needed to attach the cleaning machine to the oil-filter port, and trucks just required too wide a variety of adapters.

A company called Diesel TEK has overcome that barrier now, and their engine flush service is now available at an ever-growing number of service centers across the nation.

A heated lubricating oil containing concentrated detergents is pumped through the engine, running out through an oil pan plug adapter and then through two 3-micron filters.

Drivers say the results are astonishing. 

“I sat there and watched them and I couldn’t believe my eyes,” said Randy Whitaker, a fleet driver who recently had the service performed on his truck. “The soot and the junk that was coming out of my engine through the oil compartment was just black, nasty, sludgy looking stuff. And I’m not talking little bitty pieces — there were pieces in there the size of a dime.”

Whitaker’s truck had over a million miles on it, and normal oil changes cannot remove such particles. You can guess what had built up in that engine.

The results?

“Normally when we change our oil in these semis, as soon as you start it up and you drive 50 miles the oil is black because of the simple fact that you can’t get all of the oil out of an engine for an oil change,” Whitaker said. “But when they were done with that flush, the oil was totally clear, and it took almost three and half weeks before my oil showed any color differential. The inside of my motor was as clean or cleaner then a brand spanking new motor.”

“Truckers have been amazed,” said Paul Varela, owner of General Truck Supplies in Wilmington, California, who delivers the flushing service. “They’ve noticed less soot coming out the exhaust pipes, and when they checked the dipstick it was pretty clean. They’ve also noticed a big difference in the mileage.”

Whitaker also noticed a major difference in the truck’s performance “Before the service, I was getting right around 5.1 or 5.2 miles per gallon,” he reported. “On my last trip, I got right at 7 miles to the gallon. My truck also had more power.”

The technology for this flushing process was invented by Erik Waelput, currently a principal and vice president of AEC Group.

“The initial idea came out of the study conducted by the Society of Automotive Engineers in the 1980s, a study done because of so much high wear on diesel engines,” Waelput said. “When they cleaned the engines so that there were no contaminants above 10 microns, it basically improved the lifespan of the engine by almost double. Then they went to testing to below three microns, and according to the study if you can filter out particles below three microns and change the oil regularly, you will have no wear on the moving parts of the engine. The fuel economy is improved dramatically because you no longer have any drag or friction. It’s basically preventative maintenance that will probably double the life of that engine.”

It is recommended that this service be performed every third oil change.

It takes less than half an hour, so a trucker can be back on the road in no time.

The cleaning solution consists of a light lubricating oil with the same detergents you would find in a high-grade motor oil, only concentrated seven times higher. 

The engine flush is one of two parts of a good maintenance program.

The second is a fuel additive which cause the fuel to burn longer and cleaner, and also add lubrication.

“When we clean all the particulates out and keep them out, it reduces what the engine has to work harder to burn,” said Eric Wheeler, CEO of Diesel TEK, Inc. “Our Ester -based fuel additive, the second part of the program, causes a longer fuel burn during the combustion cycle so you don’t have this quick flash and it is over. It actually continues to burn as the entire combustion process occurs and so there is no unburned fuel remaining.”

The one-two punch of the engine flush plus the fuel additives mean better mileage, more power and years of life added to a truck, Wheeler said.

Of course, with the degree of clean-up obtained from a process like this, another benefit is the reduction of emissions.

While truckers are going to care more for the fact that they’re getting better mileage and saving money on fuel, as well as the fact that they’ve lengthened the lives of their breadwinners, they can also take pride in the fact that they’re actually having a positive impact on the environment that’s whizzing by them night and day along the highways.

Another environmental plus is the fact that the cleaning solution, once run through trucks, requires no special handling; it can be disposed of right along with waste oil.

 “The best drivers are looking for everything to make the better profit,” Whitaker said. “If you’re a company driver, you’ve got to do everything you can to help your boss out, because if he ain’t making money, you won’t have a job. If someone can’t make a profit, he’s not going to be able to pay for insurance and he’s not going to be able to buy the fuel. Doing this program, upping our fuel mileage any way we can, means there’s a little bit bigger profit margin for us and we can keep on going.”

For more information, go to dieseltek.com or call (888) 406-5558.

The Trucker staff can be reached to comment on this article at editor@thetrucker.com.



40090

2009-02-11:     

Practicing Oil Analysis - February 2009

EGR Systems and Lubricating Oil in Diesel Engines

by David Doyle, CTC Analytical Services

In recent years, engine manufacturers have been required to reduce the levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in diesel engine exhaust to meet Tier 3 emission standards required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). One of the reasons for this mandate by the EPA is because NOx has been associated with respiratory disease and cancer. This requirement is accomplished by changes in engine designs that include retarded timing, raised piston rings, selective catalytic reduction and the use of exhaust gas recirculating (EGR).

New engine designs use EGR to control NOx emissions by recirculating exhaust gases back into the combustion chamber to be burned a second time, thereby reducing emissions associated with health risks. The amount of exhaust gas introduced into the combustion chamber will displace oxygen, creating cooler combustion. In doing this, many of the exhaust contaminants end up in the engine lubricating oil.

Diesel engine oils are now exposed to a higher level of contamination that can degrade the oil and damage engine parts. There is concern that exhaust gas recirculation can have a detrimental effect on engine durability and its effects on the oil. Oils exposed to the EGR environment show an increase in soot content, acid number (AN) and viscosity, while the engine and oil are both exposed to corrosive/acidic gases and particle buildup.

EGR Figure 1.

Cooled EGR occurs when the engine coolant absorbs exhaust gas heat before entering the combustion chamber. Because the engine coolant takes up the heat from exhaust gases, the engine cooling system runs hotter, therefore the oil gets hotter. Oil oxidation rate doubles with every 18 degrees Fahrenheit. Oil sump temperatures could be running up to 40 degrees hotter.

Engine and oil manufacturers are striving to accommodate the harsh environment brought on by the use of EGR systems. Engine oil manufacturers have reformulated oils to combat the deleterious effects of the EGR environment so they will be able to provide the required protection that current engine designs need. This has led to the latest CI-4/CJ-4 API engine oil ratings, which are currently under the PC-9 designation.

Production of sulfuric acid due to current sulfur levels in diesel fuel and nitric acid from NOx compounds that are recirculated back into the engine through the EGR will require lubricating oils with a higher base number (BN) and detergency to counter-act the damaging effects of these acidic contaminants. The PC-9 oils will therefore have a higher BN and detergency level than in the past. Diesel engines using EGR systems to lubricate oils will also require higher a level of dispersancy because of increased soot loading in the oil. Without increased dispersancy, the higher levels of soot and particulate matter will not stay in suspension in the form of smaller material, increasing wear to liner, ring and valve train.

The new American Petroleum Institute (API) engine oils are expected to be licensed sometime this year. Engine manufacturers are developing tests that will assess the effect of EGR technology, and are developing materials capable of withstanding increased abrasive and corrosive wear. One such test is the Cummins M11 Exhaust Gas Recirculating Test. The test was developed to evaluate engine wear, deposit formation and oil performance of heavy-duty diesel engines with EGR systems during operating conditions. Mack and Caterpillar have also developed tests for evaluating oil and engine performance in an EGR environment.

Oil analysis has become more important than ever. These changes in diesel engine design, which include EGR systems, are pushing the performance requirements of diesel engine lubricating oil. Testing is becoming critical in monitoring the oil's ability to function properly as well as evaluating the health of the engine. Previous soot limits of 1.5 percent were normal in most heavy-duty diesel engines. Soot limits of three percent are now generally accepted, and higher levels are expected in the future.

In addition to the stress that higher temperatures put on the engine oil, mixture with exhaust gases can act as a catalyst for oxidation and nitration (a form of oxidation) in the oil. A routine oil analysis may start showing an unacceptable increase in viscosity when all other parameters and time on the oil appear normal. An improperly operating EGR system can severely aggravate this problem. Waste gate components in an EGR system can be particularly susceptible to surface scuffing damage. If an exhaust gas recirculating system is not operating properly, the lubricating oil can rapidly deteriorate. Sometimes going so far as to turning the oil into an oxidized, acidic sludge.

Used diesel engine oil testing parameters may focus more on infrared analysis (FTIR) for oxidation, nitration and sulfation than in the past. Previously, diesel engines without an EGR system did not have excessive oxidation and nitration problems unless there were significant mechanical problems or poor maintenance. The catalyzing effects of the contaminants introduced into the engine and its lubricant make the oil much more prone to oxidation, nitration and sulphation. This means the application of FTIR analysis will become a more relevant and useful tool for measuring used diesel engine oil life and serviceability.

With the new engine technology involving EGR systems, oil change intervals may suffer even with the advent of the PC-9 formulation. Condition-based oil change intervals based on standard laboratory analysis may be cut back initially because of increases in oxidation contaminants and soot. Oil change intervals will be proven by the lubricant's ability to handle the added stress by maintaining an acceptable level of alkalinity reserve (base number), proper viscosity limits through dispersancy and antioxidants and wear control.

Once again, oil analysis will be a significant determining factor establishing condition-based oil change intervals with the new developments in engine design and oil formulation. Without acquiring new test data under standard oil analysis conditions, it is hard to predict what limits we are likely to see in the future. Some wear metals relating to the liner, ring and valvetrain, such as chromium, may increase. Soot levels are definitely expected to increase well beyond the nominally accepted level of three percent. Other test parameters such as BN, AN, viscosity, oxidation and nitration will keep the same limits; it is simply a question as to how much faster these limits will be reached.

One tool that could be incorporated into an engine lubricating oil system in order to help attain desired extended oil drain intervals is the use of bypass filtration. Standard engine oil filtration is built directly into the oil circulating system. These systems are full-flow because they have to participate in the circulating system's ability to lubricate the engine. Because of the flow rate and filter design, factory full-flow filtration systems may not filter particulates smaller than 15 microns. It is up to the oil to control particulate contaminants and soot. Bypass filtration does not have to directly participate in the lubrication of the engine; it just needs to clean the oil. Therefore, oil is filtered at a much lower flow-rate through a denser medium. Particulate contaminants are then removed at a greater quantity in a smaller size range. The ability to remove a higher level of contaminants via bypass filtration could enhance oil life.

Some engine manufacturers are currently designing a new generation of EGR systems that will help reduce some of the performance and maintenance drawbacks. All this is when heavy-duty truck owners are trying to extend oil drain intervals to limits that were unheard of ten years ago. Currently, the goal of the new API classification is to keep oil drain intervals at their present extended level. With current diesel engine design and emission requirements, oil analysis is going to be an important piece of the puzzle in uncovering what these changes will mean regarding the service life of diesel engine oils to truck fleet owners and maintenance operations in the future.

David Doyle, CTC Analytical Services, "EGR Systems and Lubricating Oil in Diesel Engines". Practicing Oil Analysis Magazine. July 2002



40130

2009-01-07:     

Fleet Equipment Magazine

Keep trucking profits from going up in smoke

WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 07, 2009

Diesel TEK Inc. offers a cost effective solution to increase mileage and lengthen the life of truck engines, even in the face of soaring fuel costs. Diesel TEK Engine Flush Service and Diesel TEK Fuel Additive are the two parts of the good maintenance program that the company is offering.

Engine Flush Service removes the diesel particulate matter to improve engine efficiency and reduce wear and tear, while Fuel Additive causes the fuel to burn longer and cleaner, and adds lubrication.

Diesel TEK Inc.

www.dieseltek.com



40080

2009-01-06:     

Fleet Maintenance - December 2008
Fleet Maintenance - December 2008

Engine Flush Service and Fuel Additive

Improve Efficiency

Diesel TEK Inc. offers a cost-effective solution to increase mileage and lengthen the life of truck engines, even in the face of soaring fuel costs. Diesel TEK Engine Flush Service and Diesel TEK Fuel Additive are the two parts of the good maintenance program that the company is offering. Engin Flush Service removes the diesel particulate matter to improve engine efficiency and reduce wear and tear.



40060

2008-12-15:     

FleetOwner - Online

CARB adopts engine-replacement regs

By Justin Carretta, FleetOwner online news editor
December 15, 2008

Regulations adopted Friday by The California Air Resources Board (CARB) will require nearly all truck owners that operate in the state to install diesel exhaust filters on their rigs by 2014, replace engines older than the 2010 model year between 2012 and 2022 according to a staggered implementation schedule, and install fuel-efficient tires and aerodynamic devices on their trailers that lower greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy.

The regulations were made available for public comment in October. According to CARB, the state will offer over $1 billion in funding to help meet the standards. This includes Carl Moyer grants, designated for early or surplus compliance with diesel regulations; Proposition 1B funds, for air quality improvements related to goods movement; and AB 118, which establishes a low-cost truck loan program for early compliance with the truck rule.

"Today's vote marks a milestone in the history of California's air quality," said CARB Chairman Mary Nichols. "The Board's actions will not only help protect the health of 38 million Californians, they will also ensure that California continues strongly on its path to achieving clean air. And in light of today's extremely challenging financial climate, I am also pleased to say that the Governor, legislature and voters have made available more than one billion dollars in grants and loan programs to help truckers and business owners comply with this vital public health measure."

According to CARB, heavy-duty trucks are responsible for 32% of smog-forming emissions and 40% of cancer-causing emissions from diesel mobile sources. The new regulations will reduce diesel emissions by 68% and NOx by 25% by 2014, saving 9,400 lives and reducing health care costs for an estimated public value between $48 billion and $69 billion, it said.

The greenhouse gas reduction measure applies to over 500,000 trailers and the diesel regulation applies to about 900,000 vehicles--400,000 of which are registered in the State and 500,000 that do business in California, CARB said.

Under the regulations, fleets with three vehicles or less are exempt from any cleanup requirements until 2012. In 2012, they would have to clean up one vehicle, although it would not need to meet 2010 engine requirements until 2018. Under the greenhouse gas reduction regulation, fleets with between one and 20 trailers can delay compliance until 2013.

CARB said the total cost of the two regulations would be approximately $15.9 billion. However, it said the truck regulation's $5.5 billion would be spread over 16 years, while the greenhouse gas reduction regulation's $10.4 billion would be more than offset by the fuel savings of $14.7 billion. Yet it noted that while costs for newer fleets would be minimal, for fleets that need to upgrade a significant number of vehicles "the cost will be significantly more substantial," although CARB expects most businesses to pass the costs onto their customers.

Driving Toward a Cleaner California, a coalition of California trucking companies and businesses, has taken a strong stance against the regulations, saying retrofit devices are unverified and have compatibility issues while small businesses will have a tough time surviving if forced to comply.

The Owner-Operators Independent Drivers Assn. (OOIDA) has also been a major opponent of the regulation, especially the state's version of the Environmental Protection Agency's SmartWay program that requires owners to install certified aftermarket products.

"The statewide truck and bus regulation will undoubtedly push many small-business motor carriers and owner-operators out of business," said Joe Rajkovacz, OOIDA regulatory affairs specialist. "While ARB says they believe that supplying financial assistance to in-state motor carriers will soften the blow of this regulation, there is simply not enough money to go around, particularly when one considers that California's state government is running ‘hat in hand' to Washington D.C. for its own bailout."


The complete article can be viewed at: by clicking here.



40070

2008-12-14:     

Fleet Equipment - December 2008

Keep trucking profits from going up in smoke

December 2008

Diesel TEK Inc. offers a cost effective solution to increase mileage and lengthen the life of truck engines, even in the face of soaring fuel costs. Diesel TEK Engine Flush Service and Diesel TEK Fuel Additive are the two parts of the good maintenance program that the company is offering.

Engine Flush Service removes the diesel particulate matter to improve engine efficiency and reduce wear and tear, while Fuel Additive causes the fuel to burn longer and cleaner, and adds lubrication.

Diesel TEK Inc.
www.dieseltek.com
Circle No. 107



40040

2008-12-11:     

Los Angeles Times - California Local

State could get tough on dirty diesels

State's Air Resources Board will vote on costly measures to limit big-rig pollution.

By Margot Roosevelt, Los Angeles Times Staff Writer
December 11, 2008

Two decades ago, Rosa Vielmas, young and hopeful, moved to Riverside County for cleaner air. Goodbye to smoggy East Los Angeles. Hello to Mira Loma, an unincorporated speck of a village, and a one-story stucco bungalow with a yard. "We could see the stars," she recalled.


The complete article can be viewed at: by clicking here.



40050

2008-12-11:     

Los Angeles Times - California Local

California air board adopts a sweeping plan to curb greenhouse gases

The comprehensive blueprint for fighting global warming, the first in the nation, would cut the state's emissions by 15% within 12 years. It targets virtually every sector of the economy.

By Margot Roosevelt, Los Angeles Times Staff Writer
December 11, 2008

Reporting from Sacramento — California regulators today adopted the nation's first comprehensive plan to slash greenhouse gases, offering it as a model for President-elect Barack Obama, who has pledged an aggressive effort on the national and international stages to combat global warming.


The complete article can be viewed at: by clicking here.



40020

2008-11-12:     

Trucking Info - Product News

Diesel Tek™ Offers Engine Flush Service and Fuel Additive.

Diesel Tek™, Las Vegas, is offering its engine flush service and fuel additive as parts of its maintenance program.

The engine flush service removes diesel particulates that are too small to be caught by the average oil filter, according to the company. This improves engine efficiency and reduces wear and tear, while the fuel additive causes the fuel to burn longer and cleaner, and adds lubrication.

The benefits of the engine flush, according to the company, include reduction of emissions and better mileage. The cleaning solution consists of a light lubricating oil with the same detergents you would find in a high-grade motor oil, only concentrated seven times higher. Once run through the trucks, the cleaning fluid can be disposed of right along with waste oil. The process takes half an hour.

Check out the on-line article here: truckinginfo.com



40120

2008-11-10:     

Trucking Info - Shop & Tools

Shop & Tools

Diesel Tek™ Offers Engine Flush Service and Fuel Additive.

11/10/2008
Diesel Tek™, Las Vegas, is offering its engine flush service and fuel additive as parts of its maintenance program.

Dieseltek Engine Flush SystemThe engine flush service removes diesel particulates that are too small to be caught by the average oil filter, according to the company. This improves engine efficiency and reduces wear and tear, while the fuel additive causes the fuel to burn longer and cleaner, and adds lubrication.

The benefits of the engine flush, according to the company, include reduction of emissions and better mileage. The cleaning solution consists of a light lubricating oil with the same detergents you would find in a high-grade motor oil, only concentrated seven times higher. Once run through the trucks, the cleaning fluid can be disposed of right along with waste oil. The process takes half an hour.

More info: www.dieseltek.com



40030

2008-10-24:     

Los Angeles Times - California Local

New California rules target big-rig pollution.

The draft measures from the state Air Resources Board would affect more than 1 million heavy-duty diesel trucks. They are scheduled to take effect in 2010.

By Margo Roosevelt, Los Angeles Times Staff Writer
October 24, 2008

California's Air Resources Board on Friday released long-awaited draft rules to clean up big-rig pollution that can aggravate asthma, cancer and heart disease.


The complete article can be viewed at: by clicking here.



40000

2008-08-20:     

Los Angeles Times - California Local

Port of Long Beach's clean-trucks loan program is criticized

The plan to replace old, polluting rigs with cleaner ones will put low-income drivers deep in debt, a coalition of groups says

By Louis Sahagun, Los Angeles Times Staff Writer
August 20, 2008

A coalition of consumer, immigrant and civil rights groups warned Tuesday that a Port of Long Beach loan program to help thousands of mostly low-income truck drivers replace old, polluting rigs with newer, cleaner-burning vehicles could plunge the truckers into debt.

Port officials counter that the loans are a bargain and that truckers would not be able to afford new rigs without them. But the coalition foresees a wave of "foreclosures on wheels."

In a prepared statement, Julian Bond, chairman of the National Assn. for the Advancement of Colored People, compared the plight of independent port drivers to "farmers in America's Deep South, who worked other people's land for a share of the harvest."

"The worries of the drivers hauling containers don't include washed out fields, rotten seeds or infestations of locusts," Bond said. "Instead, their survival is at risk from spikes in the cost of diesel fuel, burdensome truck maintenance and repair costs, or tires blown from carrying overweight containers on hot summer days."

A coalition report condemning the program arranged by Mercedes-Benz/Daimler Truck Finance was expected to be delivered today to the German Embassy in Washington and to Daimler headquarters in Farmington Hills, Mich.

Under terms of the lease-to-loan program, Daimler has promised to back funding for low-emissions trucks worth more than $100,000 to any independent operator, the report said.

The report also alleged that Daimler predicted many drivers would not be able to make payments and that the company has a strong record of debt collection. Daimler officials could not be reached for comment.

Members of the coalition include the League of United Latin American Citizens, the Consumer Federation of California and the Los Angeles Alliance for a New Economy.

The coalition urged the port to convert its loan program to one similar to the system Daimler created for the Port of Los Angeles.

In that plan, which is strongly supported by the Teamsters and Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa, investments in new trucks will be handled by trucking companies that employ their drivers. In Long Beach, by comparison, individual drivers are being asked to invest in new trucks.

Port of Long Beach spokesman Art Wong said the coalition "had it wrong" with its criticism. He said that the loan program, which requires payments of $500 to $1,000 per month for seven years, was worth about $60,000 to $70,000 for participating drivers. "That's practically giving these trucks away," he said.

The loan programs, which are voluntary, are part of a $2-billion Clean Trucks Program adopted by both ports to slash diesel truck emissions by as much as 80%.

Achieving that goal has been daunting. The coalition's involvement added to the uncertainty facing truckers already overloaded with information, restrictions, mandates, fees and deadlines related to the implementation of the clean trucks program.

Authorities at both ports on Tuesday blamed general confusion for the low number of drivers now expected to submit applications for vehicle loans by the Sept. 4 deadline.

"It's very confusing," said Max Palma, a port driver. "A lot of truckers have no idea what's going on with all these different plans and protests, so they're just going with the flow."


louis.sahagun@latimes.com



40010

2008-07-25:     

Los Angeles Times - California Local

California adopts stiff pollution rules for ships

California mandates that oceangoing vessels use cleaner fuels or face costly fines. The shipping industry is displeased.

By Margot Roosevelt, Los Angeles Times Staff Writer
July 25, 2008

California regulators adopted the world's toughest pollution rules for oceangoing vessels Thursday, vowing to improve the health of coastal residents and opening a new front in a long battle with the international shipping industry.

The rules, which take effect in 2009, would require ships within 24 nautical miles of California to burn low-sulfur diesel instead of the tar-like sludge known as bunker fuel. About 2,000 vessels would be affected, including container ships, oil tankers and cruise ships.

International negotiators have struggled for decades to reduce pollution from oceangoing vessels but have been stymied by opposition from shipping conglomerates.Ships and air pollution

Federal legislation to control vessel emissions in U.S. ports, sponsored by Sens. Barbara Boxer and Dianne Feinstein, both California Democrats, has been opposed by the Bush administration, which favors deferring to future international regulations.

California's new regulation will have a global effect: 43% of all marine freight imported into the United States, much of it from Asia, moves through the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach.

California "needs to act now," Air Resources Board Chairwoman Mary Nichols said. "We've known for years that a large percentage of onshore pollution comes from activities in the water. Our ports need to expand and modernize, but the adjacent communities are not willing to tolerate the health risks."

The rules could save 3,600 lives in coastal communities over the first six years through reduced respiratory illnesses and heart disease, including a potential 80% drop in cancer risk associated with ship pollutants, according to regulators.

Nichols called the shipping regulation "the single most significant rule the Air Resources Board has adopted in the last five years."

Because prevailing winds blow from west to east in California, ship exhaust accounts for about a fifth of cancer-causing soot particles and half of the sulfur oxides over land.

The remainder is emitted by diesel-powered trucks, construction equipment, locomotives, industrial engines and agricultural pumps, which are all to be subject to stricter regulation as the state seeks to slash the emission of planet-warming greenhouse gases and other pollutants.

The air board estimates that the new shipping rules will save Californians at least $6 billion a year in health-related expenses and will cost the shipping industry between $140 million and $360 million a year.

A typical cargo ship would pay about $30,000 more in fuel costs for each visit, or about $6 per container shipped from Asia to California. That amounts to 0.1 cent per pair of sneakers, the board noted.

Environmentalists and community groups praised the rules.

"This is a huge victory for clean air and public health," said Candice Kim of the Coalition for Clean Air. "Ten Californians die every day due to air pollution from ports and freight transportation."

Shippers fiercely oppose the limits, saying that California lacks jurisdiction to regulate beyond the 3-mile limit of state waters, and that low-sulfur fuel is in short supply, particularly in Asian ports.

The San-Francisco based Pacific Merchant Shipping Assn. last year won a court victory halting the state's previous effort to control shipping pollution by regulating engine emissions. The air board believes that a fuel regulation will stand up to a court challenge, but John McLaurin, the shipping association's president, wrote the board this week that the regulation "simply rehashes and represents old arguments that have already failed to pass judicial muster."

The rules would "govern the internal operation of foreign vessels . . . require the ships to purchase the required fuel in foreign ports, and, in many cases, to retrofit their tanks, piping and engines," McLaurin wrote.

It was unclear Thursday whether the shipping industry would challenge the regulations in court.

California's rule would be implemented in two phases. Beginning July 1, 2009, shippers would be required to use diesel oil with a sulfur limit of 0.5%. On Jan. 1, 2012, that would be reduced to 0.1% sulfur, a level that would cut soot by 83%, sulfur oxides by 95% and nitrogen oxides by 6%.

By contrast, the United Nations' International Maritime Organization allows fuel that is 4.5% sulfur. IMO negotiators will meet in October and are expected to consider new limits, but those would not take effect until 2015 or later.

Shippers asked that the California board defer any action until international rules take effect. In a compromise, the board voted Thursday to allow its executive director to suspend California's regulation "if and when the IMO or the federal government adopts a rule as effective as California's," Nichols said.

Meanwhile, fines for noncompliance would be stiff. Vessels using fuel over the sulfur limit would pay a fee beginning at $45,500 for each visit, with a maximum of $227,500 on the fifth visit.

"In theory, a vessel that makes 10 calls to California would be subject to paying $1,365,000 the first year, and $2,275,000 each subsequent year," the shipping association protested.

Board officials said that international law allows California to regulate ship emissions as long as they affect its residents. The board's scientists studied pollution effects out to the 3-mile limit, the 12-mile limit and the 24-mile limit, and found that "emissions from 24 miles out directly impact the majority of our population," Nichols said.

Representatives of the Navy have expressed concern that vessels would be more likely to travel through their offshore testing and training range once the rule is implemented. But Air Resources Board staff pledged to work with Navy officials to address their concerns.


margot.roosevelt@latimes.com